A. Herring, OSU, uses tomography at 13 BMD to quantify pore scale trapping and to analyze how mechanisms affect the efficiency of capillary trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers.

Tomography at 13 BMD

A Best-Yet Cell Culture System for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

An international team utilizing 13-ID-E has developed a cell culture model that could help to develop earlier treatment strategies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Details in ANL Science Highlights based on press release from the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

A Best-Yet Cell Culture System for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell (DAC).

X-ray diffraction is the most powerful technique for crystal structure determination. From left to right, patterns from a single crystal, polychrystalline, nano-cyrstalline and amorphous crystals.

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell.

High pressure x-ray tomographic microscopy module

The HPXTM module helps researchers study the texture change of their sample under extreme pressure and temperature conditions by collecting in-situ HP/HT 3D x-ray tomographic images.

High Pressure X-ray Tomographic Microscopy Module sitting outside of the 250 ton press in 13 BMD.

GSECARS hosts experiments at 13 IDE for high school students in the Exemplary Student Research Program (ESRP) representing local area high schools. GSECARS Outreach

GSECARS Outreach

GSECARS is a national user facility
for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotron radiation at the
Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.

GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotron light source. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems:

  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell
  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and imaging using the large-volume press
  • Powder, single crystal and interface diffraction
  • Inelastic x-ray scattering
  • X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
  • X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis
  • Microtomography

► Dynamic Stabilization of Metal Oxide–Water Interfaces


Martin E. McBriarty, Guido Falk von Rudorff, Joanne E. Stubbs, Peter J. Eng, Jochen Blumberger, and Kevin M. Rosso, Journal of the American Chemical Society Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b13096 

The interaction of water with metal oxide surfaces plays a crucial role in the catalytic and geochemical behavior of metal oxides. In a vast majority of studies, the interfacial structure is assumed to arise from a relatively static lowest energy configuration of atoms, even at room temperature. Using hematite (α-Fe2O3) as a model oxide, we show through a direct comparison of in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering with density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations that the structure of the (11̅02) termination is dynamically stabilized by picosecond water exchange. Simulations show frequent exchanges between terminal aquo groups and adsorbed water in locations and with partial residence times consistent with experimentally determined atomic sites and fractional occupancies. Frequent water exchange occurs even for an ultrathin adsorbed water film persisting on the surface under a dry atmosphere. The resulting time-averaged interfacial structure consists of a ridged lateral arrangement of adsorbed water molecules hydrogen bonded to terminal aquo groups. Surface pKa prediction based on bond valence analysis suggests that water exchange will influence the proton-transfer reactions underlying the acid/base reactivity at the interface. Our findings provide important new insights for understanding complex interfacial chemical processes at metal
oxide–water interfaces.       Click for article

Science Highlight

Research at 13 IDE used synchrotron microfocus x-ray diffraction (µXRD) and x-ray fluorescence (µXRF) analysis of porcine cell cultures to contribute to a new model which could help develop treatment strategies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 


Analysis of diffuse and focal sub-RPE deposits by μXRF and μXRD. Reflected light photomicrograph of the area (A) where μXRF (B–F) patterns were obtained. Focal deposits contain calcium (Ca) (B), iron (Fe) (D), and zinc (Zn) (E). Copper (Cu) content was not well resolved in these measurements (F). A logarithmic transformation of Ca Kα μXRF shows low-intensity signal diffusely distributed among the focal deposits (C).


PURPOSE. Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch’s membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components.
METHODS. Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS. Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-lm-thick inserts with 0.4-lm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids,proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS. The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch’s membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss.  

Pilgrim, M.G., Lengyel, I., Lanzirotti, A., Newville, M., Fearn, S., Emri, E., Knowles, J.C., Messinger, J.D., Read, R.W., Guidry, C., Curcio, C.A., "Subretinal Pigment Epithelial Deposition of Drusen Components Including Hydroxyapatite in a Primary Cell Culture Model." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci., 58:708–719 (2017). DOI:10.1167/iovs.16-21060


Medicalpress Press Release

APS Highlight