A. Herring, OSU, uses tomography at 13 BMD to quantify pore scale trapping and to analyze how mechanisms affect the efficiency of capillary trapping of CO2 in saline aquifers.

Tomography at 13 BMD

A Best-Yet Cell Culture System for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

An international team utilizing 13-ID-E has developed a cell culture model that could help to develop earlier treatment strategies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Details in ANL Science Highlights based on press release from the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

A Best-Yet Cell Culture System for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell (DAC).

X-ray diffraction is the most powerful technique for crystal structure determination. From left to right, patterns from a single crystal, polychrystalline, nano-cyrstalline and amorphous crystals.

X-ray diffraction patterns from a diamond anvil cell.

High pressure x-ray tomographic microscopy module

The HPXTM module helps researchers study the texture change of their sample under extreme pressure and temperature conditions by collecting in-situ HP/HT 3D x-ray tomographic images.

High Pressure X-ray Tomographic Microscopy Module sitting outside of the 250 ton press in 13 BMD.

GSECARS hosts experiments at 13 IDE for high school students in the Exemplary Student Research Program (ESRP) representing local area high schools. GSECARS Outreach

GSECARS Outreach

GSECARS is a national user facility
for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotron radiation at the
Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.

GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotron light source. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems:

  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell
  • High-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and imaging using the large-volume press
  • Powder, single crystal and interface diffraction
  • Inelastic x-ray scattering
  • X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy
  • X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis
  • Microtomograph

Register as a General User
Apply for Beamtime
Take APS Required Safety Training
Fill out Experiment Safety Assessment Form

2018-1:  October 27, 2017, 11:59pm, CST
2018-2:  March 2, 2018, 11:59pm, CST
2018-3:  July 6, 2018, 11:59pm, CST

GSECARS participates in APS / IIT Summer EXAFS School 2017


GSECARS staff Matt Newville, Tony Lanzirotti and Margaret Koker hosted students from the APS / IIT EXAFS Summer School at 13 IDE.  The course covered  fundamental and practical aspects of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy: basics, sample preparation, experiment, theory, data analysis. One day of hands-on experiments was carried out by participants at several APS beamlines, followed by a guided data analysis laboratory using Athena/iFEFFIT and other programs.

Science Highlights

Work at 13 IDC and 33 IDD is of fundamental importance to models of carbonate geochemistry.

Conclusion : A goal of this research was to use the fundamental data obtained on Cd-carbonate overgrowth behavior to provide insight into the likelihood that metal sequestration with carbonate minerals such as calcite and dolomite may occur in natural settings. The use of dolomite substrate allowed for an investigation of a wide range of solution Cd concentrations and for comparisons with observations on calcite in the literature. More specifically, these studies elucidated the role of dolomite as an amendment to remove Cd from contaminated soils. The Cd concentrations tested in the experiments of this study were higher than typical Cd concentrations in the environment, which are below the detection limits of the surface analytical methods. Hence, the findings would apply directly to heavily contaminated mine sites or electronic waste sites and by extrapolation to less contaminated sites.


Caption : X-ray reflectivity and X-ray reflection interface microscopy data on Cd incorporation in calcite. (A) Reflectivity signal (top) of the calcite surface reacted with 10 μM Cd for 24 h. The ‘shoulder’ to the right of the calcite Bragg peaks is the (1 0 4) Bragg peak from the Cd-rich phase (black line is the model fit to the data, and green line is the calculated reflectivity from an ideally terminated dolomite substrate (‘ideal term’). The otavite Bragg peak at Q ∼ 2.4 Å is distinct from that of calcite, as is most evident when seen in the normalized reflectivity after normalization by the generic CTR shape (given by RCTR=1/[Qsin(Qd104/2)]2RCTR=1/[Qsin(Qd104/2)]2) and shown in panel A (bottom). (Fenter, 2002). (B) An ex situ XRIM image with a 40 s exposure at Q = 2.29 Å−1 (near the Bragg condition for the otavite (1 0 4) film Bragg peak). The brightness in the image is proportional to the local Cd concentration for a crystalline oriented otavite film. (C) Electron density structure for the best fit model in (A), showing an increase in electron density in the top three layers of calcite surface (here, the film-aqueous solution interface is at height = 0 Å) that is attributed to the incorporation of Cd, and the presence of layer containing adsorbed Cd.

Callagon, E. B. R., Lee, S. S., Eng, P. J., Laanait, N., Sturchio, N. C., Nagy, K. L., & Fenter, P. (2017). Heteroepitaxial growth of cadmium carbonate at dolomite and calcite surfaces: Mechanisms and rates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 205, 360-380. DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2016.12.007

► Hydration Structure of the Barite (001)-Water Interface


Abstract : The three-dimensional structure of the barite (001)–water interface was studied using in situ specular and nonspecular X-ray reflectivity (XR). Displacements of the barium and sulfate ions in the surface of a barite crystal and the interfacial water structure were defined in the analyses. The largest relaxations (0.13 Å lateral and 0.08 Å vertical) were observed for the barium and sulfate ions in the topmost unit cell layer, which diminished rapidly with depth. The best fit structure identified four distinct adsorbed species, which in comparison with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations reveals that they are associated with positions of adsorbed water, each of which coordinates one or two surface ions (either barium, sulfate, or both). These water molecules also adsorb in positions consistent with those of bariums and sulfates in the bulk crystal lattice. These results demonstrate the importance of combining high-resolution XR with MD simulations to fully describe the atomic structure of the hydrated mineral surface. The agreement between the results indicates both the uniqueness of the structural model obtained from the XR analysis and the accuracy of the force field used in the simulations.

Bracco, J.N., Lee, S.S.,  Stubbs, J.E., Eng, P.J., Heberling, F., Fenter, P., Stack, A.G. (2017). Hydration Structure of the Barite (001)–Water Interface: Comparison of X-ray Reflectivity with Molecular Dynamics Simulations. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 121 (22), 12236-12248. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b02943